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A commonly applied definition of tissue engineering, as stated by Langer and Vacanti, is "an interdisciplinary field that applies the principles of engineering and life sciences toward the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain, or improve Biological tissue function or a whole organ". Tissue engineering has also been defined as "understanding the principles of tissue growth, and applying this to produce functional replacement tissue for clinical use". A further description goes on to say that an "underlying supposition of tissue engineering is that the employment of natural biology of the system will allow for greater success in developing therapeutic strategies aimed at the replacement, repair, maintenance, or enhancement of tissue function".
Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function. The structure of these molecules may be considered at any of several length scales ranging from the level of individual atoms to the relationships among entire protein subunits. This useful distinction among scales is often expressed as a decomposition of molecular structure into four levels: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. The scaffold for this multiscale organization of the molecule arises at the secondary level, where the fundamental structural elements are the molecule's various hydrogen bonds. This leads to several recognizable domains of protein structure and nucleic acid structure, including such secondary-structure features as alpha helixes and beta sheets for proteins, and hairpin loops, bulges, and internal loops for nucleic acids.
The Food and Drug Administration's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) regulates human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products (HCT/P) intended for implantation, transplantation, infusion or transfer into a human recipient, including hematopoietic stem cells. The FDA has published comprehensive requirements current good tissue practice, donor screening and donor testing requirements to prevent the introduction, transmission and spread of communicable disease. Regulatory requirements for allogeneic products are more extensive than for autologous products. Stem cells come from different sources and are used in a variety of procedures or applications. Stem cells from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood or peripheral blood are routinely used in transplantation procedures to treat patients with cancer and other disorders of the blood and immune system. Stem cells sourced from cord blood for unrelated allogeneic use also are regulated by the FDA, and a license is required for distribution of these products. The FDA requires a review process in which manufacturers must show how products will be manufactured so that the FDA can make certain that appropriate steps are taken to assure purity and potency.
The prevalence of androgenic alopecia (AGA) increases with age and it affects both men and women. Patients diagnosed with AGA may experience decreased quality of life, depression, and feel self-conscious. There are a variety of therapeutic options ranging from prescription drugs to non-prescription medications. Currently, AGA involves annual global market revenue of US$4 billion and a growth rate of 1.8%, indicating a growing consumer market. Although natural and synthetic ingredients can promote hair growth and, therefore, be useful to treat AGA, some of them have important adverse effects and unknown mechanisms of action that limit their use and benefits. Biologic factors include signaling from stem cells, dermal papilla cells, and platelet-rich plasma are some of the current therapeutic agents being studied for hair restoration with milder side effects. Most of the mechanisms exerted by these factors in hair restoration are still being researched. analyzing the therapeutic agents have been used for AGA and emphasize the potential of new therapies based on advances in stem cell technologies and regenerative medicine.
Cell Signaling Technology is concerned with interactive signaling pathway diagrams, research studies, and relevant antibody products. Interactive pathway diagrams associated with these have been assembled by CST scientists and outside experts to provide succinct and current overviews of selected signaling pathways. Protein nodes in each interactive pathway diagram are linked to specific antibody product information or optionally to protein-specific listings in the post-translational modifications. This provides tips and recommendations for ChIP-qPCR and ChIP-seq using either sonication or enzymatic digestion based ChIP protocols. It highlights data demonstrating how antibody validation and protocol changes can affect your results. The Immune Cell Signaling pathways show the signal cascades, antibodies and reagents relevant to the following research areas such as Immune Checkpoints; T Cell & B Cell Receptor Signaling; Jak/Stat: IL-6 Signaling; Inflammasome Signaling; and Cell Instrinsic Innate Immunity.
Molecular Biology is the field of biology that studies the composition, structure and interactions of cellular molecules such as nucleic acids and proteins that carry out the biological processes essential for the cells functions and maintenance. CRISPR–Cas9 is poised to become the gene editing tool of choice in clinical contexts. Thus fa, exploration of Cas9-induced genetic alterations has been limited to the immediate vicinity of the target site and distal off-target sequences, leading to the conclusion that CRISPR–Cas9 was reasonably specific. Studies on significant on-target mutagenesis such as large deletions and more complex genomic rearrangements at the targeted sites in mouse embryonic stem cells, mouse hematopoietic progenitors and a human differentiated cell line needs to be done.
Molecular Biology overlaps with other areas of biology and chemistry, particularly genetics and biochemistry. Molecular biology is concerned itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interrelationship of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis and learning how these interactions are regulated. Researchers in molecular biology use specific techniques native to molecular biology, but increasingly combine these with techniques and ideas from genetics and biochemistry. Molecular biology is the study of molecular underpinnings of the process of replication, transcription and translation of the genetic material. The central dogma of molecular biology where genetic material is transcribed into RNA and then translated into protein, despite being an oversimplified picture of molecular biology, still provides a good starting point for understanding the field.
Plant molecular biology is the study of the molecular basis of plant life. It is particularly concerned with the processes by which the information encoded in the genome is manifested as structures, processes and behaviors. Normal growth and development of land plants rely on the coordination of various tissues and organs, and the phloem plays a role as a bridge in this process. In vascular plants the phloem tissue not only plays a necessary role in transporting photoassimilates and in long-distance delivery of macromolecules1,2,3 but also represents a central actor in organism coordination such as the integration of various outside stimuli mechanical injury, insect attack, fungal infection, etc. to produce meaningful responses4,5,6,7,8,9,10. The mechanism of plant response to external stimuli via phloem remains unclear.
Molecular medicine is a broad field where physical, chemical, biological, bioinformatics and medical techniques are used to describe molecular structures and mechanisms, identify fundamental molecular and genetic errors of disease, and to develop molecular interventions to correct them. The molecular medicine perspective emphasizes cellular and molecular phenomena and interventions rather than the previous conceptual and observational focus on patients and their organs. Molecular medicine is a new scientific discipline in European universities. Combining contemporary medical studies with the field of biochemistry, it offers a bridge between the two subjects. Molecular medicine includes the study of biochemistry, gene expression, research methods, proteins, cancer research, immunology, biotechnology, chemistry and many more.
The growth and development of the cell are essential for the maintenance of the host, and survival of the organisms. For this process the cell goes through the steps of the cell cycle and development which involves cell growth, DNA replication, cell division, regeneration, specialization, and cell death. The cell cycle is divided into four distinct phases, G1, S, G2, and M. The G phases, which is the cell growth phase makes up approximately 95% of the cycle. The proliferation of cells is instigated by progenitors; the cells then differentiate to become specialized, where specialized cells of the same type aggregate to form tissues, then organs and ultimately systems. The G phases along with the S phase DNA replication, damage and repair - are considered to be the interphase portion of the cycle. While the M phase mitosis and cytokinesis is the cell division portion of the cycle.
Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation. Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. Virtually any step of gene expression can be modulated, from transcriptional initiation, to RNA processing, and to the post-translational modification of a protein. Often, one gene regulator controls another, and so on, in a gene regulatory network. n multicellular organisms, gene regulation drives cellular differentiation and morphogenesis in the embryo, leading to the creation of different cell types that possess different gene expression profiles from the same genome sequence. This explains how evolution actually works at a molecular level, and is central to the science of evolutionary developmental biology evo-devo.
Methods and Techniques in Molecular Biology deal with the basic techniques of molecular biology to study protein function is molecular cloning. In this technique DNA coding for a protein of interest is cloned using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and/or restriction enzymes into a plasmid expression vector. A vector has 3 distinctive features: an origin of replication, a multiple cloning site, and a selective marker usually antibiotic resistance. Located upstream of the multiple cloning site are the promoter regions and the transcription start site which regulate the expression of cloned gene. This plasmid can be inserted into either bacterial or animal cells. Several different transection techniques are available, such as calcium phosphate transection, electroporation, microinjection and liposome transection. The plasmid may be integrated into the genome, resulting in a stable transection, or may remain independent of the genome, called transient transection.
Molecular Biochemistry is concerned with the research in all areas of the biochemical sciences, emphasizing novel findings relevant to the biochemical basis of cellular function and disease processes as well as the mechanics of action of hormones and chemical agents. The research includes membrane transport, receptor mechanism, immune response, secretory processes, and cytoskeletal function as well as biochemical structure-function relationships in the cell. In addition to the research, the study includes cellular metabolism, cellular pathophysiology, enzymology, ion transport, lipid biochemistry, membrane biochemistry, molecular biology, nuclear structure and function, and protein chemistry. Students of molecular biochemistry study the functions of living organisms with a special focus on the structure and actions of macromolecular complexes such as enzymes, membranes, and viruses.
Molecular biotechnology is the use of laboratory techniques to study and modify nucleic acids and proteins for applications in areas such as human and animal health, agriculture, and the environment. Molecular biotechnology results from the convergence of many areas of research, such as molecular biology, microbiology, biochemistry, immunology, genetics, and cell biology. It is an exciting field fueled by the ability to transfer genetic information between organisms with the goal of understanding important biological processes or creating a useful product. The tools of molecular biotechnology can be applied to develop and improve drugs, vaccines, therapies, and diagnostic tests that will improve human and animal health. Molecular biotechnology has applications in plant and animal agriculture, aquaculture, chemical and textile manufacturing, forestry, and food processing.